Jewish law and major variants

The Sunni are so called because they believe that only the Sunna is authoritative for Islam. They accept no line of visible representatives in the line of Muhammad. Government is based on current interpretation and application of the Sunna.

Jewish law and major variants

Jewish law and major variants

Donate If one did not know that Maimonides was the name of a man, Abraham Joshua Heschel wrote, one would assume it was the name of a university.

Maimonides was the first person to write a systematic code of all Jewish law, the Mishneh Torah; he produced one of the great philosophic statements of JudaismThe Guide to the Perplexed; published a commentary on the entire Mishna; served as physician to the sultan of Egypt; wrote numerous books on medicine; and, in his "spare time," served as leader of Cairo's Jewish community.

It is hardly surprising that when Shmuel ibn Tibbon, the Hebrew translator of The Guide to the Perplexed which had been written in Arabicwrote Maimonides that he wished to visit him to discuss some difficult points in the translation, Maimonides discouraged him from coming: My duties to the sultan are very heavy.

I am obliged to visit him every day, early in the morning, and when he or any of his children or any of the inmates of his harem are indisposed, I dare not quit Cairo, but must stay during the greater part of the day in the palace. It also frequently happens that one of the two royal officers fall sick, and I must attend to their healing.

Hence, as a rule, I leave for Cairo very early in the day, and even if nothing unusual happens, I do not return to Fostat until the afternoon.

Then I Jewish law and major variants almost dying with hunger. I find the antechamber filled with people, both Jews and gentiles, nobles and common people, judges and bailiffs, friends and foes-a mixed multitude who await the time of my return.

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Then I go forth to attend to my patients, and write prescriptions and directions for their various ailments. Patients go in and out until nightfall, and sometimes even, I solemnly assure you, until two hours or more in the night.

I converse with and prescribe for them while lying down from sheer fatigue; and when night falls I am so exhausted that I can scarcely speak.

In consequence of this, no Israelite can have any private interview with me, except on the Sabbath. On that day the whole congregation, or at least the majority of the members, come to me after the morning service, when I instruct them as to their proceedings during the whole week; we study together a little until noon, when they depart.

Some of them return, and read with me after the afternoon service until evening prayers. In this manner I spend that day. He was born in Spain shortly before the fanatical Muslim Almohades came to power there. To avoid persecution by the Muslim sect — which was wont to offer Jews and Christians the choice of conversion to Islam or death — Maimonides fled with his family, first to Moroccolater to Israeland finally to Egypt.

Jewish law and major variants

He apparently hoped to continue his studies for several years more, but when his brother David, a jewelry merchant, perished in the Indian Ocean with much of the family's fortune, he had to begin earning money. He probably started practicing medicine at this time.

Maimonides's major contribution to Jewish life remains the Mishneh Torah, his code of Jewish law. His intention was to compose a book that would guide Jews on how to behave in all situations just by reading the Torah and his code, without having to expend large amounts of time searching through the Talmud.

Needless to say, this provocative rationale did not endear Maimonides to many traditional Jews, who feared that people would rely on his code and no longer study the Talmud. Despite sometimes intense opposition, the Mishneh Torah became a standard guide to Jewish practice: Philosophically, Maimonides was a religious rationalist.

Other, more liberal, spirits forbade study of the Guide to anyone not of mature years. An old joke has it that these rabbis feared that a Jew would start reading a section in the Guide in which Maimonides summarizes a rationalist attack on religion, and fall asleep before reading Maimonides's counterattack-thereby spending the night as a heretic.

How Maimonides's opponents reacted to his works was no joke, however. Three leading rabbis in France denounced his books to the Dominicans, who headed the French Inquisition. The Inquisitors were only too happy to intervene and burn the books. Eight years later, when the Dominicans started burning the Talmud, one of the rabbis involved, Jonah Gerondi, concluded that God was punishing him and French Jewry for their unjust condemnation of Maimonides.

He resolved to travel to Maimonides's grave in Tiberias, in Israel, to request forgiveness.

Jewish views on marriage - Wikipedia

Throughout most of the Jewish world, Maimonides remained a hero, of course.Understanding Judaism begins by checking out the historical events that have shaped the Jewish culture. Here’s a brief time-line of major events in Jewish history.

Date Event c. BCE Abraham and Sarah begin the Journey to Judaism c. BCE Moses leads Hebrews out of Egyptian bondage c. BCE King David unites and [ ]. The Jewish Denominations.

A quick look at Reform, Conservative, Orthodox and Reconstructionist Judaism — and at other Jewish streams. Major institutions: Union for Reform Judaism, Hebrew Union College-Jewish Institution of Religion, Conservative Judaism sees Jewish law as obligatory, though in practice there is an enormous range .

The three major variants or streams of Judaism are Orthodox Judaism, Conservative Judaism and Reform Judaism (often called ‘Liberal’ or ‘Progressive’). The Australian Jewish community is a united but pluralistic community, which includes groups and sub-groups from all of the major streams.

Major Types of Islam -- Outline Intro to Islam

Maimonides's major contribution to Jewish life remains the Mishneh Torah, his code of Jewish law. His intention was to compose a book that would guide Jews on how to behave in all situations just by reading the Torah and his code, without having to expend large amounts of time searching through the Talmud.

The three major variants of Judaism; Orthodox, progressive and conservative have their different positions on the Prophetic Vision, social justice and Tikkun Olam. Orthodox- Respects the word of God and obeys their duties of restoring the world for God (Tikkun Olam).

Like Judaism, and Christianity, Islam is an Abrahamic religion, but most Muslims believe that Abraham sacrificed Ishmael (Isma'il) on the Kaaba stone in Mecca, rather than Isaac. It should be emphasized that Islam is composed of a wide variety of sects and individuals, and that there are many variants of the faith.

Major Variants of Christianity by Robert Kwan on Prezi