The GHI measures progress and failures in the global fight against hunger. Fifty two countries remain at serious or alarming levels. In addition to the latest statistics on Hunger and Food Security, the GHI also features different special topics each year. The report include an article on conflict and food security.
The aim of the practical was to observe territorial behavior among human beings and explore it in relation to animals in the comparative psychological perspective. It has to be defended through actual aggression or the threat of it. Territoriality has been observed to exist among certain animal species like birds, insects, mammals and vertebrates.
Therefore, a parallel with man has had to be established because territoriality has been seen to exist in man; both as an individual and a group.
The major characteristic Research paper about hunger territoriality as observed by comparative psychologists like Lorenz, Tinbergen, and ethnologists like Eibl-Ebesfeldt, is that an animal must be aggressive towards conspecifics.
Through studies and observations, the authors have come to the conclusion that the territorial behavior possesses several functions in the evolution and preservation of species.
In general it has been suggested that territoriality saves the purposes of distributing or spreading the animals over Research paper about hunger large area resulting in the proper utilization of feeding resources, to enable safe and undisturbed reproductive behavior, for example, territoriality in birds ensures that they do not build nests too close together.
And a last function of territoriality is said to be reduction of aggression in the animal species which have a high level of it. The subjects consisted of the University of Zambia students who read in the University library.
Eight subjects were observed. The apparatus used in the experiment consisted of a pen and paper for recording the sitting arrangements and signs of territorial behavior of the subjects.
O represents Observer S represents Subject Initially, O goes into the library and sits on one of the tables. After a while, O moves to a table which has almost all the seats full and sits next to S and notes the reaction of S; moving chair, objects etc. Then especially during a different time when there are many empty seats; 12 to 13 hours when many subjects go for lunch, O sits next or adjacent to a subject and notes his reaction.
The tables are made out of a combination of several smaller tables which provide a comfortable space for writing and reading for an individual student.
When a student sits down, he normally or always defines his territory by placing his books all over the rectangular spacing.
On 31st December at 9 hours, I was seated on a desk in the reference deck. Six students got their writing pads and apparently went away to attend class lectures. While they were away, three students came looking for a table where they could read.
Each one of them came, looked around and went away to another deck. Despite the fact that the owners of the books were away, the three could not occupy their desks. From this observation, we can say that objects act as very strong definitions of territory for human beings.
On deck 14 psychology 23rd DecemberI sat down to read beside a female student. Immediately I sat on the chair next to her, she pulled towards her the edges of books which were protruding into my space.
She piled her books on the table, expecting to return and resume reading after supper.
When she returned, the table was occupied by three Asian students. Her books had been moved to the middle of the table where it was difficult to determine whether she had previously sat on one of the chairs. With a hissing whisper, she asked one of the students whether he had moved the books.
The student denied it. There was a hushed argument pointing of fingers; then the Asian male student rose violently but was held by the other two. At this point, the female student angrily got her books and walked out. I put my books on one of the tables, sat and wrote for a while.
Then I went to look for a book on the shelves. A first year male student arrived; he pushed aside my books and sat down to read. I was very angry. What purpose, if any, does territoriality save for the human being in such a place like the library? Biological functions are not very evident.
People do not mate or show overt courtship behavior in the library and they do not obtain their food from it.Access the latest editorially selected research.
Share your work with development practitioners in over countries. Find out more. The workhorse framework of macroeconomics and monetary policy relies on the build-up of inflationary pressures across the cycle as the economy tightens, and firms have no choice but to raise wages, which ultimately lifts consumer prices.
March 7, AIM AND INTRODUCTION: The aim of the practical was to observe territorial behavior among human beings and explore it in relation to animals in the comparative psychological perspective.
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