Soviet Union To what extent did Stalin rise to power because of his cunning personality?
Stalin eventually earned a place in Lenin's inner circle and the highest echelons of the Bolshevik hierarchy. His pseudonym, Stalin, means "man of the steel hand". In the Russian Civil War that followed, Stalin forged connections with various Red Army generals and eventually acquired military powers of his own.
He brutally suppressed counter-revolutionaries and bandits. After winning the civil war, the Bolsheviks moved to expand the revolution into Europe, starting with Polandwhich was fighting the Red Army in Ukraine.
As joint commander of an army in Ukraine and later in Poland itself, Stalin's actions in the war were later criticized by many, including Leon Trotsky.
Invasion of Georgia and General Secretary[ edit ] In latewith the crises in society following the Russian Civil WarTrotsky argued for the trade unions to be incorporated more and more into the workers' state, and for the workers' Stalin rise to power to completely control the industrial sectors. Lenin's position was one where the trade unions were subordinate to the workers' state, but separate, with Lenin accusing Trotsky of "bureaucratically nagging the trade unions".
Fearing a backlash from the trade unions, Lenin asked Stalin to build a support base in the Workers' and Peasants' Inspectorate Rabkrin against bureaucratism.
Frustrated by the squabbling factions within the Communist Party during what he saw as a time of crisis, Lenin convinced the Tenth Congress to pass a ban on any opposition to official Central Committee policy the Ban on Factionsa law which Stalin would later exploit to expel his enemies.
Following the invasion, Stalin adopted particularly hardline, centralist policies towards Soviet Georgiawhich included severe repression of opposition to the Bolsheviks, and to opposition within the local Communist Party e. Stalin still held his posts in the Orgburothe Workers' and Peasants' Inspectorate and the Commassariat for Nationalities Affairs, though he agreed to delegate his workload to subordinates.
With this power, he would steadily place his supporters in positions of authority. On 25 MayLenin suffered a stroke while recovering from surgery to remove a bullet lodged in his neck since a failed assassination attempt in August Severely debilitated, he went into semi-retirement and moved to his dacha in Gorki.
After this, prominent Bolsheviks were concerned about who would take over if Lenin actually died. Lenin and Trotsky had more of a personal and theoretical relationship, while Lenin and Stalin had more of a political and apparatical relationship.
Yet, Stalin visited Lenin often, acting as his intermediary with the outside world. One day, Stalin verbally swore at Lenin's wife, Nadezhda Krupskayafor breaching Politburo orders by helping Lenin communicate with Trotsky and others about politics;  this greatly offended Lenin.
As their relationship deteriorated, Lenin dictated increasingly disparaging notes on Stalin in what would become his testament. Lenin criticised Stalin's rude manners, excessive power, ambition and politics, and suggested that Stalin should be removed from the position of General Secretary.
One of Lenin's secretaries showed Stalin the notes, whose contents shocked him. Lenin died on 21 January Stalin was given the honour of organizing his funeral. Upon Lenin's death, Stalin was officially hailed as his successor as the leader of the ruling Communist Party and of the Soviet Union itself.
Against Lenin's wishes, he was given a lavish funeral and his body was embalmed and put on display.
Thanks to Kamenev and Zinoviev's influence, the Central Committee decided that Lenin's Testament should not be made public. At the Thirteenth Party Congress in Mayit was read out only to the heads of the provincial delegations. Trotsky did not want to appear divisive so soon after Lenin's death and did not seize the opportunity to demand Stalin's removal.
While the triumvirate remained intact throughout and the early months ofZinoviev and Kamenev did not regard Stalin highly as a revolutionary theorist, and often disparaged him in private even as they had aided him publicly against Trotsky and the Left Opposition.
For his part, Stalin was cautious about where the political situation was heading, and often felt that Zinoviev's volatile rhetoric against Trotsky was going too far, especially when Zinoviev demanded Trotsky's expulsion from the Communist Party in January Stalin opposed Zinoviev's demand, and skillfully played the role of a moderate.
Stalin proposed the theory of Socialism in One Country in Octoberwhich Bukharin soon elaborated upon to give it a theoretical justification.
Zinoviev and Kamenev suddenly found themselves in a minority at the Fourteenth Party Conference in Aprilover their belief that socialism could only be achieved internationally, which resulted in the triumvirate splitting up.
This saw a strengthening of Stalin's alliance with Bukharin. With Trotsky mostly sidelined with a persistent illness duringZinoviev and Kamenev then formed the New Opposition against Stalin.
Stalin's revelation made Zinoviev, in particular, very unpopular with many inside the Communist Party. Trotsky remained silent throughout this Congress.
In earlyZinoviev and Kamenev drew closer to Trotsky and the Left Opposition, forming an alliance which became known as the United Opposition. The United Opposition demanded, among other things, greater freedom of expression within the Communist Party and less bureaucracy. In OctoberStalin's supporters voted Trotsky out of the Politburo.
During the years of andSoviet policy toward the Chinese Revolution became the ideological line of demarcation between Stalin and the United Opposition.Stalin’s Rise to Power Stalin was officially the leader of the Communist party, but to many in the Party, he was only a figurehead.
Many dismissed him as a nonentity and a political figure of no real substance. Joseph Stalin: Joseph Stalin, secretary-general of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union (–53) and premier of the Soviet state (–53), who for a quarter of a century dictatorially ruled the Soviet Union and transformed it into a major world power.
During the quarter of a century preceding his death, the Rise to power. The following year, , marks the beginning of Stalin's rise to power. At that point he was one of seven members of the Politburo--the others were Zinoviev and Kamenev, Trotsky, Nikolai Bukharin, Alexei Rykov, and Mikhail Tomsky.
By , Stalin would overshadow them, and by outlive them.
Joseph Stalin or Iosif Vissarionovich Stalin, was the leader of the Soviet Union from the mids until his death in More. Among the Bolshevik revolutionaries who took part in the Russian Revolution of , Stalin was appointed general secretary of the party's Central Committee in Montefiore suggested that this charm was "the foundation of Stalin's power in the Party".
Stalin was ruthless, temperamentally cruel, and had a propensity for violence high even among the Bolsheviks. Stalin used propaganda to initiate a campaign that showed the public how close he was with its deceased leader Vladimir Lenin.
In reality, Lenin did not like Stalin. In a testament written by Lenin in , he stated that he believed Leon Trotsky, the founder of the Red Army, would make a better.